..... Marking and Lifting a Ball
Q1: In the photo, a player's ball has come to rest in or on an aeration hole on the green. They may mark, lift, and replace their ball next to the aeration hole. True or False?
A1: False. Unless there is a Local Rule permitting relief, the player must replace the ball at the same place where it was marked. Decision 25/15.

Q2: Which of the following is it not permissible to use for marking a ball on the putting green? a) A 3" tee peg. b) The toe of a putter head. c) A twig lying close to the ball. d) A repaired pitch mark. e) All of the above.
A2: d) A repaired pitch mark. Decision 20-1/16. However, it is recommended that players should only mark their ball with a ball-marker, a small coin or other similar object.

Q3: A player must mark their ball before lifting it to take relief without penalty from an immovable obstruction or an abnormal ground condition. True or False?
A3: False: A ball only has to be marked before it is lifted when the Rules require it to be replaced.

Q4: Apart from on the putting green, only the player may mark and lift their ball. True or False?
A4: False. Rule 20-1. A ball to be lifted under the Rules may be lifted by the player, his partner or another person authorised by the player. In any such case, the player is responsible for any breach of the Rules.

Q5: A ball may only be marked, lifted and replaced once, except on the putting green. True or False?
A5: True. Rule 20-4. A ball that has been lifted under the Rules is again in play when it has been placed.

Q6: A player mistakenly places a different ball on the putting green at the spot where he had marked his original ball. However, he discovers his error before playing his next stroke, places his original ball on the spot from which it was lifted and holes out with it. What is the ruling? a) No penalty was incurred. b) He incurred a penalty of one stroke. c) He incurred a penalty of two strokes.
A6: a) No penalty was incurred. Decision 15-2/2. The player corrected the error before making a stroke.
Q7: In stroke play, a player who had marked and lifted their ball on the putting green could not find his ball-marker when it was his turn to play. Subsequently, he found it stuck to the sole of his shoe. What penalty was incurred? a) No penalty. b) One stroke. c) Two strokes.
A7: b) One stroke. Decision 20-1/5.5. Rule 20-1 contemplates that the ball-marker, marking the exact position of where the ball was at rest, will remain in position until the ball is replaced.

Q8: A fellow-competitor who lifts a competitor's ball on the putting green without their authority incurs a penalty of one stroke. True or False?
A8: False. Rule 18-4. There is no penalty and the ball must be replaced.

Q9: If a player drops their ball on their ball-marker, causing it to move sideways, as they bend down to replace their ball there is no penalty. True or False?

A9: False. Decision 20-1/15. Dropping the ball, regardless of the height from which it was dropped, is not considered to be "directly attributable" and would result in the player incurring a penalty stroke.